Introduction and Overview

The following resources are widely used in clinical settings to screen and assess, design treatment protocol, prescribe medication and provide referrals for children and adolescents with substance use disorders.

Screening & Assessment

Substance Use Concern?

Flowchart to guide the process of considering diagnosis, safety check, and comorbidity.


CRAFFT Interview (Version 2.1)

Popular screening instrument for adolescents.



Quick questionnaire to help determine if an alcohol assessment is needed.



Popular screener used in primary care settings to screen for harmful alcohol consumption.



Evidence-Based Treatments for Substance Use Disorders

Referral and Co-Management



  • Can code two per visit
  • Code pays $7.91 (at well visit and at E+M visit)
    • Examples: Bright Futures Adolescent Supplemental Questionnaire, GAPS, HEADSSS

  • Can code two per visit
  • Code pays $4.10 (at well visit and at E+M visit)
    • Examples: PSC, SCARED, CDI, CES-DEC, PHQ-9 Modified for Adolescents, Vanderbilt, Conners

  • May be reported in addition to E/M or Health Check
  • Code pays $30.73 (only code if screen is positive & counseling is documented from 3-15 minutes)
    • Examples: CRAFFT for Substance Use/Abuse

Additional Resources for Families

Drug Impacted Babies/Children Part 1: In this episode Marshelle Lambert, a Supervisor Social Worker at the Bureau of Indian Affairs shares some of her knowledge from over 30 years of working with children and families in Montana.

Drug Impacted Babies/Children Part 2: In part two on this series, Dr. Bonnie Stephens the Medical Director of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Community Medical Center in Missoula shares her expertise on the effects that drug use has on babies in the womb. She also describes the developmental effects this exposure has on children as they grow.

NPR Life Kit explores six ways to support children who have parents with substance use disorder.

Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation podcast about the impact substance use disorder has on children.

  • Sober Grid: sober social network app for people to interact, support, and engage with other people also in recover.
  • SoberTool: sobriety tracking tool

  • Beyond Addiction: How Science and Kindness Help People Change (2014) by Jeffrey Foote, PhD, Carrie Wilkens, PhD, and Nicole Kosanke, PhD, with Stephanie Higgs
  • Clean: Overcoming Addiction and Ending America’s Greatest Tragedy (2014) and Beautiful Boy: A Father’s Journey Through His Son’s Addiction (2009), both by David Sheff